A History of York Racial Equality Network
We are delighted to be able to share our history of working with and serving York Diverse Communities, including Voluntary, Statutory and Private Organisations and importantly York Black and Minority Ethnic Communities. We hope you find the information informative.
|1||The Context for Understanding YREN’s work: Diversity in York
|5||The Future for YREN: The Road Ahead||21|
|A||YREN’s History: A Timeline||23|
|B||Interviews Carried Out for this Report||25|
As we mark the 25th anniversary of the founding of our organisation, it gives me great pleasure as Director of York Racial Equality Network (YREN) to have the opportunity to write a foreword to this History of our organisation.
The author, Professor Ellen Roberts of the University of York, first approached me as a possible volunteer. When she said she had a historical research background, I immediately referred to our desire to produce a document detailing YREN’s background, founding and progress through the years. We needed a historical account of the work of a robust race equality organisation that could be of value to statutory, voluntary and private partners, and future historians and researchers. It also needed to be a document of recognition for all those individuals and communities that have accessed and contributed to YREN’s story through both periods of growth and resourcing of our work, to more recent times of austerity and pressure.
I am most grateful to Ellen for producing a work which has satisfied all these requirements. She did all this in a personal capacity, carrying out extensive interviews and research; I was delighted to be able to remove the dust from the carefully preserved YREN archive (nurtured and added to from the time of my arrival for all these years) and put it to some use! I am also grateful to those who gave of their time so freely for interviews, including our founder Chair, Yvie Holder.
The current Chair, Fred Ring, has described this work as “a magnificent historical document”. I am sure you will agree.
Rita Sanderson, BA(Hons)
York Racial Equality Network
Chapter 1: The Context for Understanding YREN’s Work: Diversity in York
Ethnic diversity: key figures
The period since YREN’s birth in the early 1990s has seen a rapid increase in diversity within the city of York.
In 1991, only 2% of York’s population had an ethnic minority background. By 2001, that figure had grown to 4.9%. In 2006, York was picked out in a national government report (ODPM 2006) as one of three English cities in which the rate of growth had more than doubled over that period. The report also singled out York as being fourth highest out of 56 cities for overall household growth between 1991 and 2001, and one of very few such cities in the North. By 2011, at the next national census, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) residents accounted for 9.8 % of the population. Strikingly, 17% of those aged 16-29 were from ethnic minority backgrounds, while this was so for only 4.5% of those aged 50 or over.
Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Population Change in York: 2001 to 2011
|Indicator||York 2001||York 2011||York 2001 %||York 2011 %|
|White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller||N/A||269||N/A||0.1%|
|White: Other White||3,737||6,746||2.1%||3.4%|
|Mixed/multiple ethnic group||1,144||2,413||0.6%||1.3%|
Taken from City of York Council / York and North Yorkshire NHS (2015)
Other methods of data collection suggest that the figure in the 2011 census may have been an underestimate: a report by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation in 2010 estimated the minority ethnic population to be approximately 11% of the total population, spanning 79 different first languages and 92 different ethnic and national origins (JRF 2010). This growth has been due to a number of factors, including growth in international university students and in migrant workers and refugees.
The overall picture, then, is of a rapidly growing city in which ethnic diversity has also grown markedly, from a very small base, and at a rate that is greater than that for many other cities in England. The growth has, moreover, been particularly marked among younger age groups.
The wider context in York
While these are the bald figures, what more can be noted about the context in York?
Commentaries have consistently noted that the BME population in York is widely-scattered, not particularly visible and under-served by mainstream services. “Contact 93”, the first research carried out into the experiences of those from ethnic minorities in York, noted that:
This picture of ‘hidden’ issues and problems continues to be noted today:
Research in 2009 showed that BME citizens in North Yorkshire suffer from multiple types of inequality including poor housing, difficulty accessing jobs and services, social isolation and variable educational attainment (Salford Housing and Urban Unit 2009). Concerns have been expressed by some key agencies (JRF 2010) that racism has been a growing problem, and figures for Hate Crime in York, which YREN has a key role in monitoring as a Third Party Hate Crime Reporting and Support Centre, have grown substantially.
This is therefore a picture of entrenched and pressing challenges. Alongside this concerning situation, a number of recent developments within the city have sought to promote York as a city that is welcoming to diverse groups. Some of these have been aimed specifically at refugees and asylum seekers: Refugee Action York was established in 2002 to challenge misconceptions about refugees and asylum seekers and to raise awareness of their contribution to the city, while in 2016, York obtained national recognition as a ‘City of Sanctuary’, aimed at assisting refugees and asylum seekers who find themselves in York. Other initiatives have sought to champion values which will have direct or indirect benefits for ethnic minority groups. In 2011, the York Fairness Commission was established with the aim of reducing inequality in York, and bridging the gap between ‘advantaged York’ and ‘disadvantaged York’ (York Fairness Commission 2012). In 2017, York became the UK’s first ‘Human Rights City’, focused on championing York as a “vibrant, diverse, fair and safe city” (York Human Rights City 2017).
YREN has directly contributed to, and been supportive of, these initiatives, which tend to have arisen in areas where YREN already had a presence. At times it has perhaps received less recognition than these newer initiatives for its ongoing work. It has, for example, been directly involved in work with refugees since its inception.
The overall picture, then, is that York’s population is increasingly diverse, but that challenges remain in ensuring that diverse groups are safe, respected, and able to play a full part in the life of the city and realise their potential. The various city-wide initiatives noted above are a response to these needs and recognition of their importance. YREN remains, however, the only group that is focused specifically on race and on issues of race equality. It is moreover the only group that provides services directly to the minority ethnic population, and which advocates on behalf of all such residents. It therefore plays a unique role in this changing and dynamic context. The government’s Race Disparity Audit (Cabinet Office 2017), published as this report is being written, underlines the scale of the national challenge that still remains to be tackled.
The next chapter looks at how YREN came into being, and at how it has developed to the present day.
Chapter 2: YREN’s History
Groups of individuals and families first came together in York to discuss and support one another over the issues of racial equality and diversity in the early 1970s. Initially prompted by the arrival of a number of Ugandan Asian families in 1972, and taking successive forms, these groups were funded at times by the Community Relations Council with a paid officer post, the City of York Council and North Yorkshire County Council. A further short-term post was created to support the work of settling Vietnamese ‘Boat People’ in 19878/9. These developments were not always easy, and were marked by difficulties which created successive challenges for those involved. They eventually led to the establishment of the North Yorkshire Racial Equality Council in 1976 (which closed in the early 1980s).
BME volunteers reviewed what kind of sustainable organisation would meet their needs in York. It was felt important that any new organisation should be locally BME–led, rather than dominated by representatives of statutory organisations, as in the past. Out of these hard-fought foundations, a new phase emerged in the early 1990s, and it was at this point that YREN’s origins come into focus.
The organisation that eventually became known as YREN came into being as a result of three sets of circumstances. The first, and most fundamental, was the way in which mutual support had developed over a number of years between ethnic minority families in York, based on sharing experiences, identifying common issues in their daily lives and offering each other practical and moral support. At the time, the experience of BME families in York was characterised by feelings of isolation, and sometimes by incidents involving antagonism and racial abuse. Attitudes encountered within the wider population indicated at best a lack of awareness of BME needs and rights, and at worst, prejudice, discrimination and aggression. These attitudes were evident, for example, in some of the experiences of children from BME backgrounds at school.
The grouping that was to become YREN grew out of these associations, and from the early 1990s became known as the York Ethnic Network, meeting for talks and events as the York Racial Equality Group. It brought families together to find out about common experiences and to identify what was needed. Right from the start, the focus was also on combating isolation and offering practical advice and support, through gatherings which shared food and activities. The organisation also began to recognise a need to move from providing social support to offering trained support for the victims of racial attack.
The second significant factor that enabled YREN’s birth proved to be support from within the Council, both political and practical. Councillor Rod Hills, Leader of York City Council at the time, initiated changes designed to encourage and support community empowerment and to harness the potential contribution of the voluntary sector. In the years leading up to the 1990s, only limited attention had been paid to racial equality issues within the voluntary sector in the city.
Thirdly, several sources of research and outreach work helped to raise the profile of racial equality as an issue, and to inform YREN’s agenda. One such source was the first ever piece of research into the lives and experiences of ethnic minority citizens in York, funded by the Council and carried out by its Citizens’ Services Group. The report, ‘Contact 93’, (CYC 1994) aimed to discover the size of the non-white minority population, and to gather information about their circumstances and experiences. Other aims were to identify those needs that the Council, or other agencies, could help to meet, and to strengthen contacts between the Council, ethnic minority residents and the organisations which represented them. The report identified a range of needs, and made recommendations concerning neighbourhoods, racial harassment, housing, combating women’s isolation, employment, education, social services and health. This report provided a very significant catalyst for the formation of what came to be called York Racial Equality Network.
A second strand of research was carried out by students on the University of York’s social work degree programme. Over three to four years, three sets of students undertook placements, overseen by a steering group formed within YREN, in which they carried out research into the experience of ethnic minority children in schools. This work resulted in several reports which provided evidence for service providers and also helped to inform YREN’s agenda. A key theme arising from these reports was the need for young ethnic minority people, including guests from non-minority backgrounds, to come together, and this accorded very much with YREN’s aims.
In combination, then, three factors were significant in forming and shaping YREN in its early days: the experiences of ethnic minority families; political and practical support from the Council; and research which raised the profile of racial equality and informed the agenda for service providers and voluntary groups. These factors helped to turn an informal support grouping of BME families into an established entity. In 1991-2 the then Racial Equality Group became a properly constituted organisation. In 1995 it acquired its current name – the York Racial Equality Network – and became a fully constituted organisation, with a management committee. The organisation brought together Afro-Caribbean, Asian, Mixed Race and Chinese citizens, and actively encouraged events which also involved the wider community. As Yvie Holder, the first Chair of YREN remembers, its strengths included its capacity to foster networks by bringing people together to talk, listen and take on feedback.
Development and growth
Over the decade from the mid 1990s, YREN progressively developed and consolidated its role as the only organisation in York focused specifically on issues of race equality. Key features across this period included:
- A continuing focus by YREN on supporting the needs of ethnic minority individuals, providing a channel of communication about these needs, and working with statutory agencies to improve access to services and increase awareness of the need to tackle racial discrimination.
- Close links with, and support from, City of York Council. One outcome of the Council’s involvement was the creation of an initiative called ‘Building Bridges’, designed to provide quarterly meetings/events, with its own multidisciplinary Steering Group, and an annual event. This acted as a springboard for raising awareness and for bringing together those with interests in the needs of the BME population. This event proved to be particularly important for YREN: it enabled the organisation to establish a vision for the future, and gave it energy and clarity. The Council also provided important practical support to YREN, particularly through the Citizens’ Support Group. In 2000, for example, a project administrator was seconded to YREN from the Council, and the current Director Rita Sanderson, appointed in 2001, was also initially seconded from the Council. A Service Level Agreement with the Council provided vital core funding until 2012, and was match funded through the Commission for Racial Equality until its amalgamation into the Equality and Human Rights Commission in 2008.
- The development of project work, which has carried on and intensified to the present day, and is illustrated later in this history.
During this period YREN also moved three times, and sometimes at short notice – no small feat for a very small organisation!
Innovation and strategic renewal
In recent years, YREN has continued to innovate in how it reaches and represents BME communities, and in how it engages with partners. This has been despite the impact of cuts in funding for public services, which has created challenging conditions for both the public and voluntary sectors. The projects highlighted in the next section illustrate this continuing spirit of innovation.
YREN has also built increasingly close and productive connections with a wide range of statutory and non-governmental agencies, including North Yorkshire Police, York NHS Trust, Healthwatch York and many others. YREN has, for example convened operational-level meetings with key partners including York Citizens Advice Bureau, Refugee Action York, York CVS and the Council’s Ethnic Minority Education Service. As part of this work it also offers free multidisciplinary bespoke equalities training opportunities to statutory and voluntary organisations.
During the last few years YREN has also engaged in a process of strategic renewal. A review funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2014-17) has helped YREN strengthen its work externally and also develop its internal capacity. Externally, this funding enabled YREN to:
- Maintain, develop and strengthen its information and support service, including setting up a comprehensive outcome-based monitoring system for its outreach work.
- Maintain and refocus its core representation work, to ensure that its resources could address the key issues.
- Support a multi-agency approach to tackling hate crime.
This work is illustrated in many of the projects outlined in Chapter 4.
Internally, YREN was able to use this strategic grant to refresh its objectives, identify some new ways of working and develop its communication strategy. The latter included the introduction of a new and successful community newsletter with a substantial circulation, a refreshed website and new Facebook and Twitter accounts.
YREN’s development has however also been marked by challenges and by the pressures of being a small charity aiming to support a population whose needs have often been hidden or ignored.
As for many small charitable organisations, funding has been a constant battle, and has been marked by set-backs such as the ending of the Service Level Agreement with the Council in 2007 and by unsuccessful attempts during 2008-10 to secure funding from the newly-established Equalities and Human Rights Commission. As a YREN newsletter at the time remarked:
Added financial challenges are the extent to which:
- Funding tends to be given for very defined purposes only, and may not cover the ‘spill-over’ activity which arises from the initial project. This can often involve vital case work with individuals who become known as a result of the project.
- Some key priorities, nationally and locally, remain unfunded. One clear example is YREN’s hate crime reporting and support work. As a sub-regional reporting centre, and with its vast experience in this area, YREN is ideally placed to help tackle this growing problem. There is however currently no targeted funding for this work.
These financial challenges have moreover been magnified, as noted above, by the impact of public sector funding cuts. These cuts have bitten very deeply into local government in particular: between 2010/11 and 2015/16, councils in England and Wales lost 27% of their spending power, at a time when demand for their services was rising (JRF 2015). This has inevitably led to retrenchment, and has hugely weakened the capacity of local councils to fund local charitable organisations, even when they play a key role in the community (Jones et al 2015).
A different type of challenge for YREN arises from the very breadth of its work. As those who know it well as an organisation consistently note, it is influential partly because it deals with equality on a wide range of fronts, and through a multiplicity of activities ranging from strategic interventions to detailed individual case-work. This breadth can however at times also make it challenging to ensure that its core mission is heard and understood. This challenge has also sometimes been exacerbated by frequent changes in senior personnel in the key agencies with which YREN works.
Despite these challenges, the organisation has not only survived but has continued to thrive; it is no small achievement to have grown, developed and consolidated, with very little regular financial support, over such a sustained period. The organisation’s continued standing within the city was underlined by being chosen as one of the Lord Mayor’s Charities for 2016-17, marking it as a key equality organisation in the city.
This chapter has reviewed YREN’s origins and growth, and has indicated some of the challenges that it faces. Chapters 3 and 4 develop these themes further, by looking in more depth at YREN’s work and achievements, and at the road ahead.
Chapter 3: YREN’s Work
Mission and objectives
Since the early 1990s, York Racial Equality Network and its predecessor have played a unique role as the only organisation in the city and in North Yorkshire dedicated to tackling inequality. A registered charity, initially and still importantly focused on inequality arising from race, it now also addresses inequalities on a much broader front, spanning religion, gender, and sexual inequality.
Its key objectives are to:
- Enable Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) voices to be better heard in York, so that BME citizens can express their needs and contribute to local decision-making on issues that affect their quality of life.
- Improve the knowledge and understanding of the wider community, agencies, businesses and public services of the needs of the BME population and the importance of combating racial hatred, discrimination and harassment.
- Increase the capacity of statutory partners to work effectively with diverse groups, by developing their knowledge and understanding of their perspectives and needs, and by developing confidence in working with them.
- Improve access for BME citizens to support and services.
- Provide opportunities for those from minority backgrounds to build social connections which will provide mutual support and friendship, build confidence and combat isolation.
- Improve the level of Hate Crime reporting and the experience of BME people reporting Hate Crime, and combat racial discrimination.
YREN’s work, across all of these objectives, has had some distinctive features.
- First, and very importantly, it is a user-led organisation that has focused from the outset on engaging directly with BME citizens and representing their needs, and which has developed a trusted presence within BME communities.
- The organisation has worked both at a strategic level, influencing policy decisions and service delivery by statutory organisations, and within the community through case – work at the individual level. This dual approach has enabled it to foster wider connections, and a richer understanding, than would otherwise have been possible via one track alone. As a result it has also fostered connections with a wide range of statutory, business and non-profit organisations. Many of its initiatives bring members of the BME community and service providers into the same room.
- In this strategic work, it has fostered trusted and sustainable relationships which have helped to change the way in which agencies work with diverse communities.
- its broad reach, encompassing many types of inequality, has enabled it to develop a deep understanding of the problems faced by minority groups, and of what needs to be done to address them:
- Its broad reach, encompassing many types of equality, has enabled it to develop a deep understanding of the problems faced by minority groups, and of what needs to be done to address them.
The range of its work is broad. It helps individuals and families who need support; influences and advises service providers – statutory and voluntary – on how to make their services more accessible to diverse populations; works to enable those from minority populations to have their voices heard in various forums; provides a hate crime reporting and support service and brings together those who may need companionship to combat isolation. This is a very wide agenda with a number of interlocking aims.
- It has developed expertise of some distinctive kinds which are unique in the city. Examples include:
- Creating forums in which BME communities feel confident to express their views and needs.
- Training and developing mentors who can support others, for example on issues such as hate crime. For a small organisation with very limited resources, this innovative approach has been a vital tactic as it provides a kind of ’multiplier’ effect.
- Bringing communities together with service providers, and enabling effective consultation.
- Taking an open approach which encourages BME residents and the wider community to come together.
- Finally, YREN has worked not just in York but also across North Yorkshire, and so has developed expertise across both urban and rural areas.
YREN’s work can be summed up as connecting to four key objectives:
- Enabling BME voices to be heard.
- Representing BME interests to statutory organisations and the wider community.
- Supporting and improving access to services.
- Combating racial hatred and discrimination.
These areas are outlined in Figure 1, and the following chapter highlights some of YREN’s key achievements in each of these areas.
Chapter 4: Achievements – Highligh
Chapter 5: The Future for YREN – The Road Ahead
A number of important trends and factors suggest that YREN’s work is now more needed than ever. York seems set to become an increasingly diverse city, in which inclusivity, fairness and a welcoming environment will be crucially important if the city is to thrive and be a place in which everyone can meet their potential. Organisations across the city – large, small, statutory and voluntary – have a vital role to play in enabling this to happen. In particular, they need to engage fully with their statutory responsibilities under the Equality Act 2010, and to regard those duties as a fundamental, integral part of their work, rather than as an add-on. YREN has a unique role to play in enabling organisations to build on what they have already achieved, and to continue improving their work in this area. Rising levels of hate crime, nationally and in York, indicate the urgency of the task. As this report is being finalised, indeed, YREN is launching a major appeal to raise funds, awareness and recognition for a fully-resourced Third Party Hate Crime Reporting and Support Centre. This initiative underlines the unique position that YREN occupies, and that is widely recognised in the city:
YREN is also recognised as exemplifying the impact that the voluntary sector can achieve, as noted by a participant at YREN’s 25th anniversary celebrations:
Individuals, communities and organisations all, therefore, need YREN’s expertise.
YREN will continue to work with individuals and communities to:
- Ensure that they have a clear voice within the city, and that their needs are represented.
- Provide practical support.
- Offer social links and friendship and combat loneliness.
YREN will work with statutory, voluntary and private sector organisations, offering expertise in:
- How to fulfil their commitments under the Equalities Act in a meaningful and effective way.
- How to engage diverse communities and build trusting relationships with them.
- How to consult effectively with them.
- How to work on making their services more accessible, and their workforces more internally diverse.
This points to a future in which YREN will need to:
- Stay true to itself and remain grounded in the experience of BME communities.
- Maintain and develop further its presence as the centre of expertise for race equality within York and the surrounding region.
- Communicate its expertise, particularly to those organisations who could benefit from it but may not yet be aware of it.
- Show how its expertise can support organisations in being more inclusive, diverse and welcoming. The ‘Equality Duty’ placed on public organisations by the Equalities Act 2010 will be an important focus for this work. This Duty requires public organisations to eliminate discrimination and harassment, advance equality of opportunity and foster good relations. YREN is ideally placed to support a wide range of organisations in making tangible and sustainable progress towards all three of these goals.
- Manage the tension between continuing to engage on a very wide agenda, while also communicating its core aims clearly.
- Help statutory and voluntary sector partners across the city to understand the rapidly changing BME population in the city, keeping pace with new communities as they emerge.
- Make the transition from small to bigger grants.
- Become self-sustaining.
YREN’S History: A Timeline
|1972 onwards||First organisations established in York to promote racial equality and combat discrimination, including the North Yorkshire Racial Equality Council|
|1990||Inaugural meeting of the Racial Equality Group, the forerunner of York Racial Equality Network|
|Collaborative working begins on the York International Shared Meal|
|1991||The group becomes a properly constituted organisation|
|The Census includes a question about ethnic origin for the first time|
|1993||First survey by City of York Council (CYC) of BME residents: ‘Contact 93’|
|1995||Inaugural meeting of York Racial Equality Network|
|1996||YREN’s Youth Group formed|
|1997||YREN moves into accommodation in Priory Street|
|‘Building Bridges’ programme launched by City of York Council|
|2001||YREN’s first Director appointed|
|City of York Council sets up a Racial Harassment Strategy Group|
|YREN oversees the Connecting Communities Project, funded by the Home Office (2001-3)|
|YREN launches its Open Forums|
|2002||First Open Forum for Children and Young People|
|City of York Council launches a Race Equality Scheme|
|2003||YREN moves to additional temporary accommodation in Piccadilly|
|YREN contributes to CYC’s Vision for York and the Without Walls Festival of Ideas|
|2005||YREN moves to accommodation at the Gatehouse, Cemetery Road|
|2007||YREN presents a BME Compact Code to the York Compact Conference|
|2008||YREN moves to its current premises in Falsgrave Crescent|
|YREN contributes to the City of York Social Inclusion Working Group|
|YREN establishes Senior Citizens Ethnic Elders Social Group|
|2010||YREN contributes to CYC’s Communities and Neighbourhood Plan|
|2013||YREN carries out the Intergenerational Community Engagement Project (2013-14)|
|2014||YREN receives a strategic grant from the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, to help develop its programme of work and strengthen its internal operations|
|2015||YREN receives funding from Comic Relief for the Empowered Voice Project|
|YREN receives funding from the Police and Crime Commissioner for North Yorkshire for Your Voice – A County-Wide Police and crime Minority Community Mentors and Confidence Project|
|YREN launches City-wide Equalities Network|
|YREN sets up Outreach Service at the York Mosque|
|YREN works with other agencies to prepare for the arrival of Syrian refugees|
|2016||YREN funded by the Big Lottery to establish the Friendship Project|
|YREN Community Newsletter launched|
|2017||YREN selected as one of the Lord Mayor’s Charities|
|YREN appeal launched for a properly funded and recognised Third Party Hate Crime Reporting and Support Centre|
|YREN 25th Anniversary Celebration events|
Interviews Carried Out for this Report
|Sarah Armstrong||Chief Executive, York CVS|
|Maria Ayaz||Equality and Diversity Officer, University of York|
|Rory Barke||YREN Trustee, and former Head of Community Planning and Partnerships at City of York Council|
|Naseem Beebeejaun||Member of the Ugandan Asian community|
|Iqbal Choudhury||Member of the Bengali community|
|Stephen Collins||Manager, Tang Hall Community Centre|
|Charlie Croft||Assistant Director, Communities and Equalities, City of York Council|
|Marije Davidson||Equality and Diversity Adviser, York St. John University|
|Yvie Holder||Founder Chair, YREN and formerly Equal Opportunities Adviser, University of York|
|Mark Khan||Chief Inspector, North Yorkshire Police|
|Razia Majothi||Member of the Ugandan Asian community|
|Daryoush Mazloum||The Baha’i Community of York, Member of YREN, YREN Trustee|
|Margaret Milburn||Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Officer, York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust|
|Fred Ring||Chair, YREN|
|Rita Sanderson||Director, YREN|
|Ginnie Shaw||Former Trustee, YREN|
|Adam Thomson||Superintendent, North Yorkshire Police|
|Dianne Willcocks||Chair, Fairness and Equalities Board and Deputy Chair of Trustees, Joseph Rowntree Foundation|
|Carole Zagrovic||York Carers Centre|
BBC (2017) York to become the UK’s first Human Rights City, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-york-north-yorkshire-39630239.
Cabinet Office (2017 ) Race Disparity Audit: Summary Findings from the ethnicity facts and figures website, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/650723/RDAweb.pdf.
City of Sanctuary (2016) City of Sanctuary is a movement to build a culture of hospitality for people seeking sanctuary in the UK, https://york.cityofsanctuary.org.
CYC (1994) Contact 93: Black and Ethnic Minority Residents in York, Citizens’ Support Group
CYC / York and North Yorkshire NHS (2015) York Health and Wellbeing: Joint Strategic Needs Assessment, http://www.healthyork.org/the-population-of-york/specific-population-profiles/black-and-minority-ethnic-groups.aspx.
CYC (2016) Report on Hate Crime Strategy for York 2017-19, Hate Crime Strategy Scrutiny Review Task Group, http://democracy.york.gov.uk/documents/g10065/Public%20reports%20pack%2008th-Dec-2016%2017.30%20Hate%20Crime%20Strategy%20Scrutiny%20Review%20Task%20Group.pdf?T=10.
CYC (2016) A Fairer York: City of York’s Equality strategy 2016-20, https://www.york.gov.uk/downloads/file/11354/york_equality_strategy.
CYC (2017) York’s Health and Wellbeing Strategy 2017-22.
CYC/ NHS Vale of York CCG (2017) York Health and Wellbeing: a Joint Strategic Needs Assessment.
Craig, G. (2012) York’s minorities have been hidden from history, blog post on York’s Alternative History blog, 1st July 2012, available at https://yorkalternativehistory.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/yorkalternativehistorybme.pdf.
Home Office (2016) Hate Crime in England and Wales 2015-16, Statistical Bulletin 11/16 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/559319/hate-crime-1516-hosb1116.pdf.
Jones, G., Meegan, R., Kennet, P., Croft, J. (2015) The uneven impact of austerity on the voluntary and community sector, Urban Studies Vol. 53(10) pp. 2064–2080.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2010) Mapping rapidly changing minority ethnic populations: a case study of York, http://lx.iriss.org.uk/content/mapping-rapidly-changing-minority-ethnic-populations-case-study-york.
Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015) The cost of the cuts: the impact on local government and poorer communities, https://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/default/files/jrf/migrated/files/Summary-Final.pdf.
Parkinson, M, et al (2006) State of the English Cities, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20060802132921/http://www.communities.gov.uk/pub/4/StateoftheEnglishCitiesVolume1PDF33Mb_id1164004.pdf.
Sharman, A. and Jones, I. (2017) Hate crimes rise by up to 100% across England and Wales, figures reveal, The Independent, 15th February 2017, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/brexit-vote-hate-crime-rise-100-per-cent-england-wales-police-figures-new-racism-eu-a7580516.html.
University of Salford (2009) Place survey: a study of the housing and related needs of the BAME and migrant worker communities in North Yorkshire, Sustainable Housing and Urban Studies Unit.
York Fairness Commission (2012) A better York for everyone: Findings and Recommendations September 2012, https://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/sites/default/files/York%20Fairness.pdf.
York Human Rights City (2017) A catalyst for York people, business and organisations to champion vibrant, diverse, fair and safe city, http://www.yorkhumanrights.org/.
York Racial Equality Network (YREN) (2008) Winter Newsletter December 2008.
York Racial Equality Network (YREN) (2014) YREN Intergenerational Community Engagement Project 2013-2014: Report and evaluation.
This report was commissioned by York Racial Equality Network from Professor Ellen Roberts, University of York. The work was undertaken in a personal capacity and was carried out during July – October 2017.